çorlu escortçerkezköy escortmanisa escortsivas escorttekirdag escortizmir escorturfa escortsamsun escortbalikesir escorthatay escorterzurum escorttrabzon escortadana escortantep escortbursa escortankara escortdiyarbakir escorteskisehir escortaydin escortmardin escortmalatya escortdenizli escortmaras escortkayseri escortkonya escortkocaeli escortsakarya escortordu escortmugla escortmersin escortbeylikdüzü escortbeylikdüzü escortbeylikdüzü escortsamsun escortmalatya escortantalya escortkonya escortyozgat escortbeylikdüzü escortkayseri escortçanakkale escortbodrum escortafyon escortalanya escorteskişehir escortbursa escortmanisa escortbursa escortsakarya escortkonya escortnevşehir escorttekirdağ escortbursa escortbursa escortelazığ escortniğde escortkayseri escortgaziantep escortzonguldak escortşanlıurfa escortsamsun escortmersin escortadana escortdiyarbakır escortkıbrıs escortısparta escortsinop escortgümüşhane escortordu escortrize escortkars escortniğde escortzonguldak escortartvin escorterzincan escortnevşehir escortyalova escortyozgat escortsivas escortısparta escortmardin escortuşak escortedirne escorteskişehir escortsakarya escortsinop escortkütahya escortbolu escortgiresun escortalanya escortkuşadası escortafyon escortbolu escortelazığ escortkastamonu escortdidim escortmarmaris escortçanakkale escortmardin escortordu escortbodrum escortvan escorttrabzon escortantalya escortkütahya escorthatay escortedirne escortgiresun escortsivas escortkıbrıs escortyalova escortmalatya escorterzurum escortgaziantep escortçeşme escortartvin escorterzurum escorttrabzon escortvan escortmanisa escortşanlıurfa escortadana escorterzincan escorthatay escortkastamonu escortrize escorttekirdağ escortdiyarbakır escortbase64 encodephp encodesite analizbacklink satışhacklink satışTanıtım Yazısıseo araclarıbacklinkbacklink alhacklinkhacklink seobacklink satışindoxploit shellhacklink satışphp shellhacklinklitespeed bypass shellpubg hile allogsuz shell indirgoogle sıra bulucuseo sorgulaescort ankaragebze escortdarıca escorttepeören escortsisli escortbesiktaş escortkocaeli escort bayankocaeli escortcialis fiyatcialis fiyatlarıcialis 20 mgcialiscialis 100 mgcialis 5 mgcialis satışviagra fiyatıhaber 24haber24adana escortafyon escortaksaray escortamasya escortaydın escortbartın escortankara escortbalıkesir escortantalya escortartvin escortardahan escortadıyaman escortağrı escortseo sorgulamaizmir escortankara escortgaziantep escortsakarya escortafyon escorteskişehir escortmersin escortantalya escortadıyamanescortbursa escortadana escortistanbul escortkayseri escortağrı escortaksaray escortartvin escortardahan escortbatman escortamasya escortbilecik escortbingöl escortbayburt escortbartın escortbalıkesir escortaydın escortbatman escortbayburt escortbolu escortbitlis escortçorum escortdüzce escortçanakkale escorterzincan escortbilecik escortburdur escortantep escortelazığ escortdenizli escortedirne escortdiyarbakir escortbursa escorteskişehir escorterzurum escortbingöl escortçankırı escortdenizli escortelazığ escortdiyarbakır escortpendik escortkocaeli escortesenyurt escortsamsun escortzeytinburnu escorthatay escortbeşiktaş escortküçükçekmece escortmalatya escortümraniye escortsancaktepe escorttuzla escortbeykoz escortbebek escortlevent escortkartal escortbeyoğlu escortfatih escortşişli escortmecidiyeköy escorteyüp escortbaşakşehir escortetiler escorthalkalı escortbahçelievler escortortaköy escortkağıthane escorttaksim escortbeylikdüzü escortataköy escortbakırköy escortavcılar escortkurtköy escortkadıköy escortbayrampaşa escortbüyükçekmece escortnişantaşı escortşirinevler escortataşehir escortbahçeşehir escortgiresun escortgümüşhane escortizmir escortkastamonu escortkars escortkaraman escorthakkari escortkarabük escortkilis escorthatay escortkırşehir escortistanbul escortkırıkkale escortığdır escortkıbrıs escortkırklareli escortkayseri escortkocaeli escortkütahya escortmalatya escortkonya escortmanisa escortmaraş escortmuğla escortmuş escortsiirt escortsakarya escortrize escortnevşehir escortsamsun escortniğde escortosmaniye escortmersin escortordu escortgöztepe escortkuşadası escortkonak escortbuca escortalsancak escortkarşıyaka escortsinop escortbeylikdüzü escortbodrum escortkuşadası escortbornova escortçankaya escortşişli bayan escortTuzla EscortMalatya EscortÇankaya EscortPendik EscortKartal EscortKurtkoy EscortEryaman Escortkayseri escortadana escortamasya escortbartın escortbatman escortadıyaman escortbayburt escortartvin escortantalya escortaydın escortbalıkesir escortağrı escortafyon escortbilecik escortbingöl escortburdur escortbolu escortbursa escortçanakkale escortçorum escortdüzce escortedirne escortçankırı escortdiyarbakır escortdenizli escortelazığ escortgiresun escorthatay escortkaraman escortısparta escortmaraş escortkars escortkastamonu escortgümüşhane escorteskişehir escortkarabük escorterzincan escorterzurum escortkayseri escortkütahya escortkırıkkale escortkırklareli escortmardin escortkonya escortmuğla escortkocaeli escortmanisa escortmersin escortkırşehir escortmalatya escortmuş escortosmaniye escortnevşehir escortniğde escortsamsun escortordu escortrize escorturfa escortsakarya escortsinop escorttekirdağ escortyalova escortzonguldak escortyozgat escortsivas escorttunceli escorttrabzon escortuşak escorttokat escortvan escortşırnak escortsivas escortuşak escorttunceli escortkıbrıs escortkıbrıs escorttekirdağ escortyozgat escorttokat escortzonguldak escorttrabzon escortvan escortyalova escortc99 shelllitespeed bypass shellbacklink sorgulamahacklink panelc99 shellmakale programıhacklink seomeme küçültmeseo analizantalya escortankara escortizleANKARA ESCORTlifta nedirlifta 20 mg nedirlifta 20liftalifta 20 mgkamagra nedirsüper kamagrakamagra 100mg fiyatkamagra 100mgkamagra fiyatıkamagra jel fiyatıviagra fiyatinstagram takipci hilesiinsagram Free Followerssmm panelinstagram takipci satın alinstagram Followersinstagram takipci hilesiinstagram unfollowinstagram Followers Freeinstagram takipci hilesiinstagram takipci hilesiinstagram takipci hilesiinstagram beğeni hilesiinstagram free likesinstagram followers freesunucu taramahtml kod şifrelemeWho isseowso shelltatto girlshacklink panelbacklink saleskamagra fiyatkamagra siparişkamagra jel siparişkamagra jelkamagrakamagra satın alcialis 5 mgviagra fiyat eczaneviagra fiyat 2021 eczaneonline viagra siparişviagra fiyat 2021viagra sipariş hattıviagra siparişpfizer viagra satın alonline eczane viagrapfizer viagra satışviagra satın alviagra eczaneviagra fiyatlarıviagra fiyatcialis fiyatıcialis fiyatlarıcialis satışcialis eczanecialis 20cialis hapcialis 100 mgcialis 20 mgviagra eczaneonline eczane viagraviagra satışviagra fiyatlarıcialis 5 mgcialis 100 mg fiyatcialis 5 mg fiyatıcialis eczanehardcislifta 5 mgliftaviagra fiyatcialis 100 mgcialis 20 mgcialis fiyatcialis 20 mg eczane fiyatıcialis nedirorcafildegra 100 mgvigrandedegraviagra fiyatıviagra satın alcialis 5 mg fiyatviagra satın alcialis jelviagra 100 mg fiyatcialis fiyatlifta 20 mgviagra siparişEreksiyon Haplarıorcafil 5 mgflynta 5 mglifta 5 mgflynta 20 mglifta 20 mgdegra fiyatdegra 100 mgsildegra 100 mgsildegrasinegravigrandevigrande 100 mgcombo 100 mgvigaroojeligrabolu escortbitlis escortesenler escortbağcılar escortgaziosmanpaşa escortarnavutköy escortsarıyer escortüsküdar escortçekmeköy escortkozyatağı escortbostancı escortiçerenköy escorterenköy escortmardin escortçeşme escortsisli escortankara escorteskişehir escortizmir escortantalya escortdenizli escortkonya escortburdur escortçankırı escortdüzce escortedirne escortçorum escorterzincan escortçanakkale escorterzurum escorthurma escortkonyaaltı escortlara escortANKARA ESCORTankara escortANKARA BAYAN ESCORTistanbul escortgiresun escortgümüşhane escortkarabük escortığdır escortkars escortısparta escortmaraş escortkastamonu escortkırşehir escortkırklareli escortkırıkkale escortkilis escortkütahya escortmardin escortmuğla escortmanisa escortnevşehir escortmuş escortsinop escortşırnak escortordu escortrize escorturfa escortsivas escorttrabzon escortvan escortzonguldak escortuşak escorttunceli escortyozgat escorttokat escortyalova escorttekirdağ escort

Are There Synoptic Qur’ans like the Synoptic Gospels?

A Copy of the Holy Qur'an

The so-called synoptic gospels cannot stand comparison with the Qur’an

It is eccentric enough that some Christian apologists argue that there are synoptic Qur’ans like synoptic gospels to prove that there is nothing wrong with having more than one gospel. It is more eccentric that even such synoptic gospels portray different views even of the most basic tents of Christianity contained in the New Testament like the picture of Jesus, his mother Mary and Jesus’ teachings.

As a matter of fact, the so-called synoptic gospels cannot stand comparison with the Qur’an. It is quite unfair to draw a historical comparison between the Qur’an and the above-mentioned gospels for an uncountable number of reasons. However, I will try here to cite only a few reasons why it is a sophism to liken such synoptic or any other gospels to the Qur’an and argue that there is only one Qur’an throughout history.

Before handling the Qur’an and evidencing its textual integrity, it is convenient here to give some facts about gospels in general and synoptic gospels in particular.

Facts about Gospels

It is widely known that there are four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. There are also apocryphal gospels, non-canonical gospels, Jewish-Christian gospels and gnostic gospels. Though many Christians believe that the four canonical gospels are a revelation from God and so an accurate and authoritative representation of the life of Jesus, many scholars agree that not everything contained in such gospels is historically reliable.

Though there were gospels which were circulated in early Christianity, but they did not become canonical. Of the many gospels written in antiquity, only four gospels came to be accepted as part of the New Testament or canonical. Much literature, such as the work known today as Gospel of Thomas, lacks the narrative framework typical of a gospel. Canonical gospels specifically refer to the four books selected as canon by the early church.

Biblical scholars generally agree that early oral traditions about Jesus along with collections of accounts preceded the canonical gospels. Reza Aslan states that “the gospels were deeply influenced by Paul’s letters.” The dedicatory preface of the Gospel of Luke testifies to the existence of several accounts of the life of Jesus by the time of its composition. The term Luke uses (διήγησις diēgēsis) is a term used in classical Greek for any historical narrative.

It is widely believed that the three synoptic gospels derive from a common source or set of sources, and that they directly or indirectly borrowed from or were influenced by each other. For example, the vast majority of material in Mark is also present in either Luke or Matthew or both, suggesting that Mark was a source for Matthew and Luke. The existence of common material in Matthew and Luke not contained in Mark suggests that both Matthew and Luke had at least one other source at their disposal.

The majority view today is that Mark is the first gospel, with Matthew and Luke borrowing passages both from that gospel and from at least one other common source, lost to history. This view is known as the “two-source hypothesis”. The two-gospel hypothesis, in contrast, says that Matthew was written first (by Matthew the Apostle), and then Luke the Evangelist wrote his gospel (using Matthew as his main source) before Mark the Evangelist wrote his gospel (using Peter’s testimony). John was written last and shares little with the synoptic gospels.

The consensus among biblical scholars is that all four canonical gospels were originally written in Greek, the lingua franca of the Roman Orient.

Estimates for the dates when the canonical gospel accounts were written vary significantly; and the evidence for any of the dates is scanty. Because the earliest surviving complete copies of the gospels date to the 4th century and because only fragments and quotations exist before that, scholars use higher criticism to propose likely ranges of dates for the original gospel autographs.

The Qur’an

As a matter of fact, all Muslims from Prophet Muhammad’s lifetime up to the Day of Judgment have only one Qur’an. The Qur’an which used to be recited by the Companions of Prophet Muhammad is the same Qur’an we recite today. However, there are some reasons why some people may think that there are differences in the text of the Qur’an.

Therefore, when it comes to the Qur’an as a text, it must be taken into consideration that the Qur’an has several styles of recitation (Qira’at) which were all revealed to Prophet Muhammad. In this regard, Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said: “This Qur’an has been revealed in seven different styles, so recite it in the way that is easiest for you.” (Al-Bukhari) It is also reported that he said: “Gabriel taught me one style. So I kept reviewing it until he taught me more; and I kept asking him for more and he gave me more until finally there were seven styles.” (Al-Bukhari)

The Qur’anic text is not an ordinary one but such a holy, miraculous, meaningful one. It was the last holy book to be revealed to humanity. The previous scriptures had certain validity. They would be confined to certain times, places and sometimes peoples. However, the Qur’an, as the last holy book, has much longer validity. It has to be consulted from Prophet Muhammad’s lifetime up to the Day of Judgment. It must include an answer to each question which may arise throughout this prolonged period of time.

Nevertheless, a holy book cannot contain much details; otherwise, it will be voluminous, bulky and, as a result, unreadable. Thus, it was necessary that the holy book to be sent should have been comprehensive but, at the same time, concise. That was the Qur’an. It is such a holy book which is concise in wording but rich in meaning. A generic verse of the Qur’an gives answers to several questions in multiple times and places. This per se is one of the miraculous aspects of the Qur’an.

One of the reasons for the differences in the text of the Qur’an is taking the various Arabic dialects into consideration. At the time of the revelation of the Qur’an, there were so many Arabic dialects for the then Arabs were Bedouin tribes which were scattered throughout the Arabian Peninsula. Each tribe had its own dialect and Arabic pronunciation. The various Arabian tribes had a lot of variants for the same words. They had no standard dialect given their nomadic lifestyle.

It is noteworthy that, upon the advent of Islam, Arabic itself had yet to assume a standard form. The usage of the Qur’an was the first usage to be adopted by all Arabs. The Arabic language from Prophet Muhammad’s time is based on the language of the Qur’an.

Being itself a great literary miracle, the Qur’an managed to unify all Arabs though they, at the time, were pioneers in rhetoric. The Qur’an defeated all previous literary masterpieces and set a new linguistic standard which Arabs could not challenge. So, they had to adopt such standard which took into account all of their dialects and allowed them to recite it each according to one’s own accent as a way for the facilitation of the recitation and a means of propagation and circulation.

Thus, we can conclude that there is only one Qur’an which Allah meant to bear as much meanings as possible and to be recited by as many people as possible. Such considerations of meaningfulness and facilitation of recitation entailed a particular form of the Qur’an which is so resilient that it, linguistically speaking, could unify Arabs by taking in all of their local dialects, and, semantically speaking, can serve as a guide every time and everywhere.

Conclusion

There is only one Qur’an. The earliest copies of the Qur’an were free from vowels, dots and punctuation in general for the reasons given above. If there is another Qur’an which materially different from the Qur’an all Muslims have, let those who have it come up with it.

_________

References:

1- Sahih Al-Bukhari

2- biblehub.com

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (No Ratings Yet)
Loading...

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.