çorlu escortçerkezköy escortmanisa escortsivas escorttekirdag escortizmir escorturfa escortsamsun escortbalikesir escorthatay escorterzurum escorttrabzon escortadana escortantep escortbursa escortankara escortdiyarbakir escorteskisehir escortaydin escortmardin escortmalatya escortdenizli escortmaras escortkayseri escortkonya escortkocaeli escortsakarya escortordu escortmugla escortmersin escortbeylikdüzü escortbeylikdüzü escortbeylikdüzü escortsamsun escortmalatya escortantalya escortkonya escortyozgat escortbeylikdüzü escortkayseri escortçanakkale escortbodrum escortafyon escortalanya escorteskişehir escortbursa escortmanisa escortbursa escortsakarya escortkonya escortnevşehir escorttekirdağ escortbursa escortbursa escortelazığ escortniğde escortkayseri escortgaziantep escortzonguldak escortşanlıurfa escortsamsun escortmersin escortadana escortdiyarbakır escortkıbrıs escortısparta escortsinop escortgümüşhane escortordu escortrize escortkars escortniğde escortzonguldak escortartvin escorterzincan escortnevşehir escortyalova escortyozgat escortsivas escortısparta escortmardin escortuşak escortedirne escorteskişehir escortsakarya escortsinop escortkütahya escortbolu escortgiresun escortalanya escortkuşadası escortafyon escortbolu escortelazığ escortkastamonu escortdidim escortmarmaris escortçanakkale escortmardin escortordu escortbodrum escortvan escorttrabzon escortantalya escortkütahya escorthatay escortedirne escortgiresun escortsivas escortkıbrıs escortyalova escortmalatya escorterzurum escortgaziantep escortçeşme escortartvin escorterzurum escorttrabzon escortvan escortmanisa escortşanlıurfa escortadana escorterzincan escorthatay escortkastamonu escortrize escorttekirdağ escortdiyarbakır escortbase64 encodephp encodesite analizbacklink satışhacklink satışTanıtım Yazısıseo araclarıbacklinkbacklink alhacklinkhacklink seobacklink satışindoxploit shellhacklink satışphp shellhacklinklitespeed bypass shellpubg hile allogsuz shell indirgoogle sıra bulucuseo sorgulaescort ankaragebze escortdarıca escorttepeören escortsisli escortbesiktaş escortkocaeli escort bayankocaeli escortcialis fiyatcialis fiyatlarıcialis 20 mgcialiscialis 100 mgcialis 5 mgcialis satışviagra fiyatıhaber 24haber24adana escortafyon escortaksaray escortamasya escortaydın escortbartın escortankara escortbalıkesir escortantalya escortartvin escortardahan escortadıyaman escortağrı escortseo sorgulamaizmir escortankara escortgaziantep escortsakarya escortafyon escorteskişehir escortmersin escortantalya escortadıyamanescortbursa escortadana escortistanbul escortkayseri escortağrı escortaksaray escortartvin escortardahan escortbatman escortamasya escortbilecik escortbingöl escortbayburt escortbartın escortbalıkesir escortaydın escortbatman escortbayburt escortbolu escortbitlis escortçorum escortdüzce escortçanakkale escorterzincan escortbilecik escortburdur escortantep escortelazığ escortdenizli escortedirne escortdiyarbakir escortbursa escorteskişehir escorterzurum escortbingöl escortçankırı escortdenizli escortelazığ escortdiyarbakır escortpendik escortkocaeli escortesenyurt escortsamsun escortzeytinburnu escorthatay escortbeşiktaş escortküçükçekmece escortmalatya escortümraniye escortsancaktepe escorttuzla escortbeykoz escortbebek escortlevent escortkartal escortbeyoğlu escortfatih escortşişli escortmecidiyeköy escorteyüp escortbaşakşehir escortetiler escorthalkalı escortbahçelievler escortortaköy escortkağıthane escorttaksim escortbeylikdüzü escortataköy escortbakırköy escortavcılar escortkurtköy escortkadıköy escortbayrampaşa escortbüyükçekmece escortnişantaşı escortşirinevler escortataşehir escortbahçeşehir escortgiresun escortgümüşhane escortizmir escortkastamonu escortkars escortkaraman escorthakkari escortkarabük escortkilis escorthatay escortkırşehir escortistanbul escortkırıkkale escortığdır escortkıbrıs escortkırklareli escortkayseri escortkocaeli escortkütahya escortmalatya escortkonya escortmanisa escortmaraş escortmuğla escortmuş escortsiirt escortsakarya escortrize escortnevşehir escortsamsun escortniğde escortosmaniye escortmersin escortordu escortgöztepe escortkuşadası escortkonak escortbuca escortalsancak escortkarşıyaka escortsinop escortbeylikdüzü escortbodrum escortkuşadası escortbornova escortçankaya escortşişli bayan escortTuzla EscortMalatya EscortÇankaya EscortPendik EscortKartal EscortKurtkoy EscortEryaman Escortkayseri escortadana escortamasya escortbartın escortbatman escortadıyaman escortbayburt escortartvin escortantalya escortaydın escortbalıkesir escortağrı escortafyon escortbilecik escortbingöl escortburdur escortbolu escortbursa escortçanakkale escortçorum escortdüzce escortedirne escortçankırı escortdiyarbakır escortdenizli escortelazığ escortgiresun escorthatay escortkaraman escortısparta escortmaraş escortkars escortkastamonu escortgümüşhane escorteskişehir escortkarabük escorterzincan escorterzurum escortkayseri escortkütahya escortkırıkkale escortkırklareli escortmardin escortkonya escortmuğla escortkocaeli escortmanisa escortmersin escortkırşehir escortmalatya escortmuş escortosmaniye escortnevşehir escortniğde escortsamsun escortordu escortrize escorturfa escortsakarya escortsinop escorttekirdağ escortyalova escortzonguldak escortyozgat escortsivas escorttunceli escorttrabzon escortuşak escorttokat escortvan escortşırnak escortsivas escortuşak escorttunceli escortkıbrıs escortkıbrıs escorttekirdağ escortyozgat escorttokat escortzonguldak escorttrabzon escortvan escortyalova escortc99 shelllitespeed bypass shellbacklink sorgulamahacklink panelc99 shellmakale programıhacklink seomeme küçültmeseo analizantalya escortankara escortizleANKARA ESCORTlifta nedirlifta 20 mg nedirlifta 20liftalifta 20 mgkamagra nedirsüper kamagrakamagra 100mg fiyatkamagra 100mgkamagra fiyatıkamagra jel fiyatıviagra fiyatinstagram takipci hilesiinsagram Free Followerssmm panelinstagram takipci satın alinstagram Followersinstagram takipci hilesiinstagram unfollowinstagram Followers Freeinstagram takipci hilesiinstagram takipci hilesiinstagram takipci hilesiinstagram beğeni hilesiinstagram free likesinstagram followers freesunucu taramahtml kod şifrelemeWho isseowso shelltatto girlshacklink panelbacklink saleskamagra fiyatkamagra siparişkamagra jel siparişkamagra jelkamagrakamagra satın alcialis 5 mgviagra fiyat eczaneviagra fiyat 2021 eczaneonline viagra siparişviagra fiyat 2021viagra sipariş hattıviagra siparişpfizer viagra satın alonline eczane viagrapfizer viagra satışviagra satın alviagra eczaneviagra fiyatlarıviagra fiyatcialis fiyatıcialis fiyatlarıcialis satışcialis eczanecialis 20cialis hapcialis 100 mgcialis 20 mgviagra eczaneonline eczane viagraviagra satışviagra fiyatlarıcialis 5 mgcialis 100 mg fiyatcialis 5 mg fiyatıcialis eczanehardcislifta 5 mgliftaviagra fiyatcialis 100 mgcialis 20 mgcialis fiyatcialis 20 mg eczane fiyatıcialis nedirorcafildegra 100 mgvigrandedegraviagra fiyatıviagra satın alcialis 5 mg fiyatviagra satın alcialis jelviagra 100 mg fiyatcialis fiyatlifta 20 mgviagra siparişEreksiyon Haplarıorcafil 5 mgflynta 5 mglifta 5 mgflynta 20 mglifta 20 mgdegra fiyatdegra 100 mgsildegra 100 mgsildegrasinegravigrandevigrande 100 mgcombo 100 mgvigaroojeligrabolu escortbitlis escortesenler escortbağcılar escortgaziosmanpaşa escortarnavutköy escortsarıyer escortüsküdar escortçekmeköy escortkozyatağı escortbostancı escortiçerenköy escorterenköy escortmardin escortçeşme escortsisli escortankara escorteskişehir escortizmir escortantalya escortdenizli escortkonya escortburdur escortçankırı escortdüzce escortedirne escortçorum escorterzincan escortçanakkale escorterzurum escorthurma escortkonyaaltı escortlara escortANKARA ESCORTankara escortANKARA BAYAN ESCORTistanbul escortgiresun escortgümüşhane escortkarabük escortığdır escortkars escortısparta escortmaraş escortkastamonu escortkırşehir escortkırklareli escortkırıkkale escortkilis escortkütahya escortmardin escortmuğla escortmanisa escortnevşehir escortmuş escortsinop escortşırnak escortordu escortrize escorturfa escortsivas escorttrabzon escortvan escortzonguldak escortuşak escorttunceli escortyozgat escorttokat escortyalova escorttekirdağ escortspam skoru öğrenalexa sorgulamaspam skoru sorgulamawho isalexa sorguyemek tarifleriyemek tarifi alyemek tarifitatlı tarifipasta tarifi

Role of Early Popes and First Council of Nicaea in the Establishment of Contemporary Christianity

Christian Tradition in the Balance

By Abdul-Rahman Mojahed

Imaginary picture of the Council of Nicaea

Indeed, many contemporary Christians do not know that many of their contemporary beliefs, laws and rites are not based on the Bible, including the Old Testament and the New Testament.

As such, Christianity is just a fabric mostly woven by the early popes before and during the First Council of Nicaea, which was the first ecumenical council laying the foundations of the contemporary Christianity.

It is curious that the tradition of the early popes and fathers was divinized in such a way which rendered it equivalent to God’s revelations as well as Jesus’ teachings in the four synoptic gospels and complementary to the epistles of Paul and others as well as the books supplemented to the four synoptic gospels.

Thus, the Christian tradition handed down by the early popes and fathers has become an important source of legislation, principle of faith and reference to the religious practice in Christianity.

Though the statements and acts of some early Muslims are considered sources of the Islamic jurisprudence like the Companions’ statements and the practices of Medina’s people, there are big differences between them and the church tradition.

For example, the Companions’ statements and the practices of Medina’s people have nothing to do with the fundamentals but the subsidiaries of Islam. The fundamentals of Islam were established in Prophet Muhammad’s lifetime. But, the Christian tradition underlies the belief system, law and practice in Christianity.

Moreover, the Companions’ statements and the practices of Medina’s people are not unanimous sources in Islam. They are adopted by just a few Muslim scholars.

Furthermore, the early Muslims’ statements or acts cannot be considered for creed or legislation unless they are based on valid evidence from the Qur’an or the Sunnah (Prophet Muhammad’s tradition) or at least do not contradict clearer evidence from the Qur’an or the Sunnah. As for the early Muslims’ sentiments and preferences which are not based on valid evidence from the Qur’an or the Sunnah, they are not binding on later Muslims.

As far as the Christian tradition is concerned, it is adopted by most Christians though they may not be based on the Bible. So, let’s have a look at the most important beliefs, laws and rites derived from the Christian tradition:

Profession of Faith

The earliest profession of faith, namely the Nicene Creed, involving the doctrine of the Holy Trinity and Jesus’ divinity, was adopted at the Council of Nicaea in 325, mostly under the influence of Pope Alexander I of Alexandria, the 19th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.

Bible Compilation

Prior to the Council of Nicaea, there was not anything called “Bible” in its current form. There were just scattered books, gospels and epistles.

At this council, almost the nuclear structure of the current Bible was agreed to. Thus, such books, gospels and epistles deemed consistent with the doctrine of the Trinity adopted by Constantine were picked out.

What is more, such books, gospels and writings deemed inconsistent with this doctrine were burnt and obliterated as ordered by Constantine.

In 331 A.D., Constantine ordered Eusebius of Caesarea to prepare fifty bibles, better known as “Fifty Bibles of Constantine”. They were made for the use of the Bishop of Constantinople in the growing number of churches in that very new city.

Dates of Fasting

It was Pope Demetrius I of Alexandria, the 12th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark, who established a fixed basis for fasts and Christian holy days. He established the reckoning by which the dates of fasting were determined. A scholar in his own right, Demetrius took part in the controversy over the proper calculation of Easter. He was the first to devise the calculation for fixing the dates to celebrate Easter each year. His calculation was approved by the Nicene Ecumenical Council (325 AD). Today many of the Eastern Orthodox churches continue to use his calculation.

Seven-Week Lent

A seven-week Lent before Easter is usually attributed to the pontificate of Pope Telesphorus, the Pope of the Catholic Church from 126 to 137.

Liturgical Language

It was Pope Vector I, the Pope of the Catholic Church in the late second century, who caused the Roman church to shift from Greek to Latin for the liturgy.

Sacrament of Matrimony

It was Pope Soter, the Pope of the Catholic Church from 167 to 174, who declared that marriage was valid only as a sacrament blessed by a priest.

Clerical Marriage

From Jesus’ Ascension until the Council of Nicaea, the clergy were under no obligation to remain celibate though this was just recommended by Paul in his epistles in the New Testament.

It is noteworthy that prior to the Council of Nicaea, Pope Callistus I, the Bishop of Rome from 218 to 223, allowed the lower clergy to get married and remarried.

However, in the wake of the Council of Nicaea, the clergy were not allowed to remarry. The already married clergy were ordered to maintain sexless marriages. Post-Nicene clergy have not been allowed to get married.

(Christian) Easter Day

The (Christian) Easter day remained subject to considerable controversy among Christians and even among popes, patriarchs and fathers themselves for more than three centuries from Jesus’ Ascension until the Council of Nicaea in 325.

There were some churches which insisted on celebrating this feast on the same day as the Jewish Easter day (Passover), on the 14th of Nisan, which was the day Jesus was allegedly crucified according to the contemporary Christian creed, even if it was not a Sunday.

Other churches, including the Roman Catholic Church during the pontificate of its successive popes, insisted on celebrating the Easter on a Sunday.

The inter-Christian difference sometimes went so far that Pope Anicetus, the Pope of the Catholic Church from 157 to 168, allowed each church to retain the date to which they were accustomed.

The stated controversy lasted until the Council of Nicaea created in 325 decided it in favor of the Roman Catholic Church. The Council resolved: first, that the Easter would be always celebrated on a Sunday; second, it would be that Sunday following the 14th of Nisan.

Christmas Day

It was Pope Julius, the Pope of the Catholic Church from 337 to 352, who set the date of 25 December for celebrating the Nativity.

Christmas Midnight Mass

The tradition of Christmas Midnight Masses is usually attributed to the pontificate of Pope Telesphorus, the Pope of the Catholic Church from 126 to 137.

Blessed Water

The introduction of the customs of using blessed water mixed with salt for the purification of Christian homes from evil influences, as well as that of mixing water with the sacramental wine, are attributed to Pope Alexander I, the Pope of the Catholic Church from 107 to 115.

Last Supper in the Liturgy of the Mass

According to the Liber Pontificalis, it was Alexander I, the Pope of the Catholic Church from 107 to 115, who inserted the narration of the Last Supper (the Qui pridie) into the liturgy of the Mass.

Recitation of the Sanctus with the People

It was Pope Sixtus I, the Pope of the Catholic Church from 115 to 124, who passed an ordinance that after the Preface in the Mass the priest shall recite the Sanctus with the people.

Singing of the Gloria

The singing of the Gloria is usually attributed to the pontificate of Pope Telesphorus, the Pope of the Catholic Church from 126 to 137.

Priests Standing and Bowing Their Head as They Read from Gospels

It was Pope Anastasius I, the Pope of the Catholic Church from 399 to 401, who instructed priests to stand and bow their heads as they read from the gospels.



  1. The Holy Bible
  2. Liber Pontificalis
  3. st-takla.org


Read Also: 

Roman Emperors’ Role in the Establishment of Contemporary Christianity

The Dark History and Major Historic Scandals of Popes and Early Christian Emperors

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (1 votes, average: 1.00 out of 5)

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.